Mastic gum (also known as mastiha) is resinous extract from the Pistacia lentiscus var. chia tree, indigenous to the Mediterranean islands. The mastic tree thrives especially well in the southern part of the island of Chios, due to the mild climate and characteristics of the soil. Recently, the traditional knowledge of Chios mastiha production was recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The plant has a unique lemony balsam-like smell, which can permeate the air of the ‘Mastichochoria’, the villages on Chios that produce mastic gum. Mastiha is used as a flavoring for many products in Greece ranging from chewing gum to digestifs, found at nearly every neighborhood restaurant and corner store. The use of Chios mastiha as a digestive dates back to Hippocrates in the 5th century BCE, and has carried through the ages.